"In light of the decision by the IOC to allow Russian athletes to compete under a neutral flag, I feel compelled as a member of the IOCAC to make it clear to clean athletes of the world and fans of Olympic sport, that there are no winners in today's decision", Wickenheiser said in a statement she released on Twitter. Athletes in other Summer Olympic sports could compete only if certified by their respective global federations.
The Olympic and Russian flaghs at the closing ceremony of the Sochi Winter Games in 2014.
The decision comes after a 17-month investigation by the International Olympic Committee into what was deemed to be state-supported doping.
In Rio, Russia was allowed to field a team that was one-third the normal size, with the IAAF refusing to allow any Russians to compete.
The commission noted that the McLaren Report did not mention that the Russian Olympic Committee (ROC) participated in the system.
"An Olympic boycott has never achieved anything", Bach said at a news conference Tuesday.
The IOC measures will have huge repercussions for football's world governing body FIFA and next year's World Cup in Russia, as Mutko is the president of the Russian Football Union and chairman of the Russia 2018 organising committee.
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The International Olympic Committee did not bar Russian Federation from the 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro. By Monday, 25 Russians had been disqualified from the Sochi Games and banned from the Olympics for life, and 11 medals were stripped. Moscow has denied any state involvement in the doping of Russian athletes.
Bach said: "This should serve as a catalyst for a more effective anti-doping system led by Wada".
The IOC said Russian athletes would be invited to Pyeongchang at its discretion, based on qualifying for individual sports and passing several drug tests.
Meanwhile the credibility of the Russian whistleblower Grigory Rodchenkov, who ran the Moscow anti-doping laboratory before fleeing previous year and revealing what he knew to McLaren, was recently enhanced by the Oswald commission, who confirmed that he was a "truthful witness".
President Putin warns of Russian "humiliation" and serious harm to the Olympic movement if the country is forced to compete under a neutral flag or excluded altogether.
In the space of one month the International Olympic Committee dishes out similar sanctions to 25 Russians from Sochi Games. We salute whistleblower Dr. Grigory Rodchenkov, who risked so much to tell this story, and support all those who are willing to speak truth to power.
Any sanctions imposed by the International Olympic Committee can also be challenged at CAS, and later at Switzerland's supreme court, which can intervene if the legal process has been abused.