Two of the attacks happened in mosques in Kabul in August and September.
Ashraf Ghani says that the day's attacks show that "the terrorists have once again staged bloody attacks but they will not achieve their evil purposes and sow discord among the Afghans".
Security forces cordoned off the area one hour after the explosion.
There was no immediate claim of responsibility for the grisly attack but recent assaults on Shiite mosques in Afghanistan have been carried out by Islamic State militants, who belong to the rival Sunni branch of Islam.
Abdulhai Khatebi, Ghor provincial spokesman, said the attacker detonated his suicide vest during worship services in the late afternoon.
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More than 30 people lost their lives and over 40 others were wounded when a suicide bomber detonated his explosives inside a mosque in Dasht-e-Barchi area in Kabul's PD13, sources confirmed. Seven of his bodyguards were also killed in the attack.
At least 10 people were killed when a gunman opened fire on worshippers in a Shiite mosque in Kabul on Friday as they gathered for evening prayers, officials said, the latest attack to hit the Afghan capital.
The attacker invaded the "Imam Zaman" mosque in the western district of Dash-e-Barshi in Kabul, where Shiite worshipers had gathered for prayer.
No group has so far claimed responsibility for either attack.